Gordon Brown served as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010 and as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1997 to 2007, making him the longest-serving Chancellor in modern history. He has been the Member of Parliament for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath since 1983 and is now also the United Nations Special Envoy for Global Education. Brown's time as Chancellor began with the granting of independence to the Bank of England and was marked by sustained investment in health, education and in the reduction of poverty and overseas aid. As Prime Minister, Brown's tenure coincided with the global financial crisis, and he was one of the first to initiate calls for coordinated global action and chaired the London Summit of 2009. Brown has a First Class Honours degree and a Doctorate in History from the University of Edinburgh and spent his early career working as a lecturer. He is married to Sarah Brown, Chair of the Global Business Coalition for Education, and they live in Fife and London with their two sons, John and Fraser. He is the author of several books and the founder, with his wife, of Theirworld, a charity to whom the profits of this book will be donated.